INVITED AUTHOR: Marta E. Aparicio García

Current research is paying close attention in the last 15 years to the health of transgender people, noting that there is a greater social prejudice, discrimination, violence and a stressful, hostile atmosphere which negatively affects the well-being of these individuals. These researches are reflected in the chapter “Transgender, Sexual Orientation and Health”. The chapter notes, for example, that transgender adults are at elevated risk of depression (Clements-Nolle, Marx, Guzman, & Katz, 2001), levels of clinically significant depressive symptomatology and perceived stress higher than nontransgender people (Fredriksen-Goldsen et al ., 2013) and attempted suicide although the risk of suicide decreases with age (Grant, et al., 2011). However, family and peer support have been identified as having protective effects against suicide and HIV infection among transgender populations (Grant, Mottet, Tanis, Harrison, Herman, & Keisling, 2011). And a number of internal factors of resilience have been identified that reduces the effects of stigma on mental health among transgender individuals. Thus, working in greater acceptance among the general population and understanding of the experiences of transgender communities may help to reduce the occurrence of transphobic events and improve the health and well-being of transgender people.

Clements-Nolle, K., Marx, R., Guzman, R., & Katz, M. (2001). HIV prevalence, risk behaviors, health care use, and mental health status of transgender persons: Implications for public health intervention. American Journal of Public Health, 91(6), 915–921.

Fredriksen-Goldsen, K. I., Cook-Daniels, L., Kim, H. J., Erosheva, E. A., Emlet, C. A., Hoy-Ellis, C. P., … & Muraco, A. (2013). Physical and mental health of transgender older adults: an at-risk and underserved population. The Gerontologist, 54 (3), 488-500.

Grant, J. M., Mottet, L. A., Tanis, J., Harrison, J., Herman, J. L., & Keisling, M. (2011). Injustice at every turn: A report of the national transgender discrimination Survey. Washington: National Center for Transgender Equality and National Gay and Lesbian Task Force.