In 1998, Canetto and Sakinofsky suggested what they referred to as “The gender paradox in suicide”: in western countri es women have higher rates of thinking and behaving in a suicidal way, but deaths from suicide are typically in men. The most superficial explanation, already rejected because of its simplicity and scant explanatory capacity, is that women tend more to call attention rather than really commit suicide. It is men who show a more “real” conduct: when they decide to commit suicide they do so: if women were really determined to kill themselves, they would also “really” do so. But if we use the SGBA Sex and Gender –based analysis) clear differences are revealed in the experience undergone, the behaviours adopted and the social roles of men and women: Moreover, the prejudices which are implicit in many of the diagnostic tools come to the fore. And this is not a trivial matter since in ad dition to awareness of one of the mechanisms underlying the behaviour of human beings, namely suicide; we are playing with the effectiveness of preventive measures against suicide. In fact, to be able to tackle them effectively, we need to be able to try to understand the mechanisms of this gender paradox. Expectations play an important role in manifesting this paradox; it becomes more intense in communities and groups in which different conduct is expected...Read More
Author: M. Pilar Sánchez López
INVITED AUTHOR: Chris McVittie Queen Margaret University, Musselburgh, United Kingdom THE PSYCHOLOGY OF GENDER AND HEALTH. CONCEPTUAL AND APPLIED GLOBAL CONCERNS Chapter 4.- Masculinities and Health: Whose Identities, Whose Constructions? Authors: Chris McVittie (Queen Margaret University, Musselburgh, United Kingdom), Julie Hepworth (Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia) and Karen Goodall (University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom) Over recent decades, numerous studies of masculine identities have offered insights into issues relating to men’s health. Much work has focused on one particular form of masculine identity that is argued to encourage risk-taking behaviours and to discourage or prevent men from seeking help on health matters in circumstances where consulting health professionals when such a course would be appropriate. Instead this form of masculine identity, termed ‘hegemonic masculinity’ (Connell, 1995; Connell & Messerschmidt, 2005), is said to promote invulnerability and stoicism in the face of adversity and hence a reluctance to seek help from others. Furthermore, it is suggested that hegemonic masculinity has consequences not just for men themselves but also for others, including partners and health professionals, who are interested in promoting the health of individual men and that it positions them in relation to these matters. Although this focus has been useful in some respects, especially in highlighting how issues of health are bound up with issues of identity, the focus on hegemonic masculinity has in many instances led to...Read More
INVITED AUTHOR: Marta E. Aparicio García Current research is paying close attention in the last 15 years to the health of transgender people, noting that there is a greater social prejudice, discrimination, violence and a stressful, hostile atmosphere which negatively affects the well-being of these individuals. These researches are reflected in the chapter “Transgender, Sexual Orientation and Health”. The chapter notes, for example, that transgender adults are at elevated risk of depression (Clements-Nolle, Marx, Guzman, & Katz, 2001), levels of clinically significant depressive symptomatology and perceived stress higher than nontransgender people (Fredriksen-Goldsen et al ., 2013) and attempted suicide although the risk of suicide decreases with age (Grant, et al., 2011). However, family and peer support have been identified as having protective effects against suicide and HIV infection among transgender populations (Grant, Mottet, Tanis, Harrison, Herman, & Keisling, 2011). And a number of internal factors of resilience have been identified that reduces the effects of stigma on mental health among transgender individuals. Thus, working in greater acceptance among the general population and understanding of the experiences of transgender communities may help to reduce the occurrence of transphobic events and improve the health and well-being of transgender people. Clements-Nolle, K., Marx, R., Guzman, R., & Katz, M. (2001). HIV prevalence, risk behaviors, health care use, and mental health status of transgender persons: Implications for public health intervention. American Journal of...Read More
INVITED AUTHOR: Andreea C. Brabete There is a growing interest in introducing not only the sex perspective but also a gender perspective in research at all levels as the research findings are more accurate and they contribute to address several health challenges. For example, in Europe, Horizon 2020 considers gender as a cross-cutting problem and grant applicants are asked to explain how women’s and men’s needs and behaviours are introduced in project proposals. Moreover, the program supports the participation of women in research teams and management structures (European Commission, 2016). In addition, in Canada, the Canadian Institute of Gender and Health (2012) encourages researchers through its publications to incorporate sex and gender in health in order to identify and address women’s and men’s health issues. Despite the increasing uptake of sex/gender perspective in the study of health inequities, a sex/gender perspective applied to migrants’ health remains rare. To address this void in the literature, the chapter “Examining Migrants’ Health from a Gender Perspective” addresses migrants’ health. The chapter describes women’s situation in scholar studies since women started being considered autonomous immigrants very recently. Studying migrants’ health from a gender perspective sheds light on the several health inequities that immigrant women and men face in both the origin and host country. For example, working conditions, social support and socio-economic status affect men and women differently and they involve different gender...Read More
INVITED AUTHOR: Isabel Cuéllar Flores A recent research has shown that prevention of HIV must be a priority in developed countries such as Spain (Cuéllar-Flores et al., 2016). Young people have wrong knowledge about sexual HIV prevention practices and about the 60% of girls and boys between 16 and 35 years old doesn’t use condoms in every sexual contact. Gender determinants of HIV prevention practices are different for boys and girls . For example in Spain, 80% of new female cases were found through unprotected sex with heterosexual partners (Centro Nacional de Epidemiología, 2008), whereas the majority of new male infections are related to men who have sex with men. You can find more information in the chapter of The psychology of gender and health (2017) called Contributions of gender perspective to HIV infection. References: Cuéllar-Flores et al. (In the name of CoRISpe) (2016). Conocimiento sobre VIH y conductas sexuales de riesgo en jóvenes. Comunicación. Congreso GESIDA,...Read More
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